Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart

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‘O Mozart ma 1780. Na Johann Nepomuk della Croce ke ki‘i.

He haku mele koʻikoʻi ʻo Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (27 Ianuali 17565 Kēkēmapa 1791; inoa piha Joannes Chrysostomus Wolfgangus Theophilus Mozart) o ka wā kelakikala. Makemake nui ʻia ʻo Mozart o nā haku mele kelakikala.

Kona ola[E ho'opololei | edit source]

ʻOhana, wā liʻiliʻi[E ho'opololei | edit source]

Hānau ʻia ʻo Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart iā Leopold lāua ʻo Anna Maria Pertl Mozart i ke alanui Getreidegasse 9 ma Salzburg. ʻO Maria Anna (1751–1829) (kapakapa ʻia "Nannerl") ke kaikuahine hoʻokahi wale nō o Wolfgang i ola ai mamua o ka hānau ʻia. Papekema ʻia ʻo Wolfgang ma kēia lā aʻe ma St. Rupert's Cathedral. Kapa ka moʻolelo papakema iā Mozart ʻo Joannes Chrysostomus Wolfgangus Theophilus Mozart. Akā, ua kapa ʻo Mozart iā ia ʻo Wolfgang Amadè Mozart. Nui nā ʻano kona inoa.

He hope Kapellmeister kō Mozart makuakāne, Leopold Mozart, o ka hui hoʻokani pila aloaliʻi o ka ʻakipihopa o Salzburg. He haku mele ʻo Leopold. He kumu ʻike ʻia ʻo ia; ma ka makahiki o ka hānau o Mozart, ua paʻi ʻo ia i he puke aʻo holomua no ka pila, ʻo ia hoʻi, ʻo Versuch einer gründlichen Violinschule.

He ki‘i (ʻaʻohe i hōʻike ʻia ka inoa o ke kahakiʻi) o ke keiki Mozart, na Pietro Antonio Lorenzoni paha; ua pena ʻia ma 1763 ma he uku komikina mai Leopold

I nā makahiki ʻehiku o Nannerl, hāʻawi ʻo Leopold iā ia i nā haʻawina no ka kulawie. Nānā ʻo Mozart i nā haʻawina, me ka hoʻopunihei: ua moʻolelo kona kaikuahine; hoʻohala manawa ʻo ia i ka kulawie, loaʻa nā hapakolu, [...] a me hōʻike kona leʻaleʻa i leo maikaʻi ai [iā ia]."

Ua hoʻomau ʻo Nannerl: "i nā makahiki ʻehā o Mozart, ua hoʻomaka kona makuakāne, like me he mea pāʻani, e aʻo iā ia i he mau minuet a me he mau mele ma ke kulawie [...] hiki iā ia ke hoʻokani iā ia me kīnā ʻole a me ka hune nui, a he pana hemolele kona. [...] nā makahiki ʻelima o Mozart, haku mele ʻē ʻo ia i nā mele iki, i hoʻokani ai ʻo ia i kona makuakāne, i kākau iā lākou." ʻO kēlā mau mele ʻo Andante (K. 1a) a me ʻo Allegro in C (K. 1b).

ʻĪ ka mea hōʻike-ola Maynard Solomon, ʻoiai ʻo Leopold i he kumu aloha keiki, aia ka ʻōlelo hōʻike i hoʻoikaika ʻia ai ʻo Wolfgang e holomua ma waho o nā haʻawina o kona makuakāne. ʻO kō Mozart hana, kona mele mua, kūʻokoʻa (a me pakī me ka ʻīnika), a me kona hiki mua e hoʻokani i ka pila. Pūʻiwa ʻo Leopold. Pili ka makuakāne a me ke keiki kāne; hele mai kēia mau hanana iā Leopold ā hauʻoli.

Ke aniani ka noʻeau mele poʻokela o kana keiki kāne, hāʻawipio ʻo Leopold i ka haku mele. ʻO ia ke kumu wale nō o Wolfgang ma kona wā liʻiliʻi. Aʻo ʻo Leopold i kana keiki i nā ʻōlelo, nā kumuhana kula, a me ke mele hoʻokani.

Hoʻokani ka ʻohana o Mozart: ʻo Leopold, ʻo Wolfgang, a me ʻo Nannerl. Na Carmontelle ke kiʻi pena wai, ca. 1763[1]

1762-1773: Nā makahiki o ke ka‘ahele[E ho'opololei | edit source]

I ka wā o nā makahiki hoʻomohala o Mozart, hele kona ʻohana i kekahi mau wahi ma ʻEulopa. Ua hōʻike ʻia nā keiki. Hoʻomaka nā huakaʻi me he hōʻikena ma ka makahiki 1762 ma ke Aloaliʻi o ka ʻElele Manakoho o Pawalia ma Munich, ā laila (ma ka makahiki like), ma ka Aloaliʻi ʻImepeliala ma Vienna a me Prague. Hele ka ʻohana ma he kaʻapuni lōʻihi (ʻekolu-hapalua makahiki) i nā aloaliʻi o Munich, Mannheim, Palika, Lākana, The Hague, hele hou i Paris, a hele mai i ka home ma o Zürich, Donaueschingen, a me Munich. Ma kēia huakaʻi, hui ʻo Mozart i nā mea hoʻokani pila (he helu nui) a me kamaʻāina iā ia me nā mele o kekahi mau haku mele. He hoʻohuli manaʻo nui ʻo Johann Christian Bach iā Mozart. Hui lāua ma Lākana mai 1764–65. Hele hou ka ʻohana i Vienna ma 1767 a ua noho ma ʻō ā Kēkēmapa 1768.

Ho‘omāluhiluhi kēia mau huaka‘i, no ka mea o ke kūlana makakumu o ke ka‘ahele ma kēlā wā, ka pono e kali i nā palapala kono o nā ali‘i, a me nā ma‘i maika‘i ‘ole mamao o ka home. Ua ma‘i ka mākuakane ma Lākana ma ke kauwela o 1764, ā laila ua ma‘i nā keiki ‘elua ma The Hague ma ka hā‘ulelau o 1765.

Ma hope o ‘ekahi makahiki ma Salzburg, hele ‘o Leopold a me Wolfgang i Italy, a me noho mai i kō Wolgang makuahine a me ke kaikuahine ma ka home. Ho‘omaka ka huaka‘i ma Kēkēmapa 1769 a me ho‘opau ma Malaki 1771. Like me nā huaka‘i ma mua, ‘o ke kumu o kēia huaka‘i ka hō‘ike o nā hiki o Mozart me he mea ho‘okani a me he haku mele i ho‘omakua wiki ai. Hui ‘o Mozart iā Giovanni Batista Martini ma Bologna, a me ‘āpono ‘ia me he lālā o Accademia Filarmonica. Ma Loma, ho‘olohe ho‘olua wale nō ‘o Mozart iā Miserere (na Gregorio Allegri) ma he hana ma Sistine Chapel, ā laila kākau piha ‘o ia iā ia mai ka hoʻomanaʻo ʻana, a ho‘i hou e ho‘opololei i nā hewa iki; pēlā, Hana ‘o Mozart i ke kope kolohe mua o kēia mele kia‘i ‘ia o ka Wakikana.

Ma Milana, ua kākau ‘o Mozart i ke keaka mele, ‘o Mitridate Rè di Ponto (1770), i kākela ‘ia ai. Ā laila, ho‘i mai nā uku komikina no ke keaka mele, a me ho‘i hou (‘elua manawa) ‘o Wolfgang a me ‘o Leopold mai Salzburg i Milan (‘Aukake-Kēkēmapa 1771, ‘Okakopa 1772-Malaki 1773) no ka haku mele a me nā ho‘omaka o Ascanio in Alba (1771) a me ‘o Lucio Silla (1772). Manaʻolana ‘o Leopold i hua ai kēia mau kipa ma he wae ‘oihana no kona keiki kāne ma ‘Ikalia, akā, ‘a‘ole hana ‘ia.[2]

Ma ka ho‘opau o ka huaka‘i hope loa o ‘Ikalia, ua kākau ‘o Mozart i ka hana ho‘okani i hana ‘ia i kēia manawa, ka hīmeni kū pākahi cantata "Exsultate, jubilate", K. 165.

1773–1777: Ke aloali‘i o Salzburg[E ho'opololei | edit source]

Mahope o kona hele mai ‘ana hope loa me kona makuakāne mai ‘Ikalia (13 Malaki 1773), Hai ‘ia ‘o Mozart me he mea ho‘okani pila aloali‘i e ke ali‘i o Salzburg, ‘o Keiki Ali‘i-‘Akipihopa Hieronymus Colloredo. He kanaka punahele ‘o Mozart ma Salzburg. Ma ‘ō, nui kona hoaloha,[3] a he manawa kūpono kona e haku ma nā ‘ano mahele (nā symphony, sonata, string quartet, serenade, a me keaka mele). I kō ‘oukou wā, hana ‘ia kekahi mau hana ho‘okani i hana ai ‘o ia i kēlā wā. Pēnei, i ka manawa ma waena o ‘Apelila a me Kēkēmapa o 1775, ho‘omōhala ‘o Mozart i he hoihoi no nā concerto no ka pila violina. Hana ‘o ia i nā concerto no ka pila violina ‘elima. Ma ka makahiki 1776, hana ‘o ia i nā concerto no ka piano.[4]

I loko o kēia mau ho‘okō ‘ana, hele ‘o Mozart ā kaumaha i Salzburg a me hoʻoikaika e huli i he ‘oihana ma kahi ‘ē. ‘O ke kumu o ke kaumaha, kona uku hana iki, he mau 150 florin ma ka makahiki.[5] Ho‘i, makemake ‘o Mozart e haku i nā keaka mele, a me kakaʻikahi ka hanana no ke keaka mele ma Salzburg. Ke ho‘opau ke keaka o ke aloali‘i ma 1775, ho‘omaika‘i ‘ole ke kūlana.[6] Kahamaha nā huaka‘i ‘elua (no he ‘oihana) i ka noho ‘ana ma Salzburg. Kipa ‘o Wolfgang a me kona makuakāne iā Vienna (mai 14 Iulai - 26 Kepakemapa 1773), a me Munich (from 6 Kēkēmapa 1774 to Malaki 1775). ‘A‘ole holomua nā kipa, akā, i ka huaka‘i ma Munich, holomua ka ho‘omaka o kō Mozart keaka mele, La finta giardiniera.[7]

1777–1778: Ka huaka‘i ma Palika[E ho'opololei | edit source]

Ma ‘Aukake 1777, haʻalele ‘o Mozart i kona ‘oihana ma Salzburg a me hele aku (23 Kepakemapa) ma kekahi huaka‘i e huli i he ‘oihana, a me kipa iā Augsburg, Mannheim, Palika, and Munich.[8] No ka mea o ka hō‘ole o ka ‘Akipihopa Colloredo e kala iā Leopold (e ka‘ahele me Mozart), kauoha ‘ia ka makuahine o Mozart, Anna Maria, e hele pū me ia.

Ma Mannheim, kama‘āina ‘o Mozart me nā lālā o ka hui hoʻokani pila o Mannheim, ka hui hoʻokani pila nō ka ‘oi ma Europe i kēlā wā. Aloha ‘o ia iā Aloysia Weber, ke kahi o nā kaikamahine ‘ehā ma he ‘ohana mele.

Aia he mau ‘oihana wehe ma Mannheim, akā, ‘a‘ole holomua ‘o ia, a hele ‘o Mozart i Palika (14 Malaki 1778)[9] e huli hou. ‘A‘ole maika‘i kona pōmaikaʻi ma ‘ō; hō‘ike ke kahi o kona mau leka, aia he hā‘awi no he ‘oihana me he mea ‘okana ma Versailles, akā ‘a‘ole makemake ‘o Mozart i kēlā ‘oihana.[10] Hele ‘o ia ā ‘ai‘ē a me pono e kū‘ai aku i nā waiwai.[11] I ka manawa o ka huaka‘i, hele kō Mozart makuahine ā ma‘i a me make ‘o ia (3 Iulai 1778);[12] Aia he mau ‘emo i loa‘a ke kauka; manaʻo wale ‘ia e Halliwell, aia ‘a‘ohe kālā.[13]

I ka manawa i noho ‘o Wolfgang i Palika, huli ‘o Leopold i nā ‘oihana i ka home ma Salzburg no kona keiki kāne.[14] Me ke kāko‘o o nā ali‘i kūloko, loaʻa he ‘oihana maika‘i e Leopold no Wolfgang, (me he mea ‘okana no ke aloali‘i a me haku o ka ‘aha hīmeni), me he uku hana o he mau 450 florin.[15]

Akā, kali ‘o Wolfgang e pani i kēia ‘oihana,[16] a me ma hope o kona hele aku ‘ana mai Palika (26 Kepakemapa 1778), hele ‘o ia i Mannheim, ā laila ‘o Munich; manaʻolana ‘o ia i loa‘a he ‘oihana e ia ma waho o Salzburg. Ma Munich, hui hou ‘o ia iā Aloysia, he pu‘ukani holomua. ‘A‘ole aloha ‘o Aloysia iā Mozart.[17]

Hele ‘o Mozart ma 15 Ianuali 1779 a me pani i kona ‘oihana hou. ‘A‘ole ‘olu‘olu ‘o ia ma Salzburg.

Ma ka huaka‘i ma Palika, kākau ‘o ia i kona mau mele kaulana; ‘o ia ho‘i, ka sonata no ka piano ma A minor, K. 310/300d, ma 1778; a me ka Symphony "Palika" (no. 31), ho‘okani ‘ia ma Palika ma nā lā 12 a me 18 Iune, 1778.[18]

‘O Mozart ma 1777. He ki‘i i noi ‘ia e Padre Martini.

1781: Ka hele ‘ana ma Vienna[E ho'opololei | edit source]

Ma Ianuali 1781, holomua ka ho‘omaka o ke keaka mele,Idomeneo, ma Munich. Keia Malaki a‘e, kēnā ‘ia ka haku mele iā Vienna, no ka mea, hele kona haku hana, ‘o Keiki ali‘i-‘Akipihopa Colloredo o Salzburg, i he hana hoʻohiwahiwa no ka ho‘okomo o Emperor Joseph II. Ke hana Colloredo iā Mozart me he kanaka hana, ame ke pāpā ‘ia ‘o Mozart e ka ʻakipihopa e ho‘okani no ka ‘Emepela ma ka aloali‘i o Countess Thun (‘o ka uku ka hapalua o kona uku o Salzburg), ho‘ohuhū ‘ia loa ‘o Mozart, he kanaka holomua ma Munich. Ma ka mahina o Mei, ho‘onui ua paio la: ho‘ā‘o ‘o Mozart e ha‘alele, akā hō‘ole ‘ia. Ma keia mahina a‘e, ‘Āpono ka ‘ae e hoʻi aku, akā hana ‘ia kūamuamu: Ho‘oku‘u ‘ia ‘o Mozart "me he peku ma ka ‘ōkole", i hana ‘ia e ke kuene o ka ‘Akipihopa, Kauna Arco. Ia wā nō, hō‘ike ‘o Mozart i nā manawa kūpono e ola maika‘i ma Vienna. Manaʻo ‘oia, pono ‘oia e noho ma‘ō ame ulu i kona ‘oihana.[19]

No Mozart, hana ‘ia pa‘akīkī ka paio me ka ʻAkipihopa e ka mea ‘oia‘i‘o i kōkua kona makuakāne i ka ‘ao‘ao o ka ʻAkipihopa: mana‘olana ‘oia i hele mai kana keiki kāne i ka manawa i ho‘i ‘o Colloredo. Kākau kona makuakane iā Wolfgang, ame ho‘olā‘au iāia e ʻuao me kō lāua haku hana. Makemake loa ‘o Wolfgang e hana ho‘okahi i kona ‘oihana ma Vienna. Ke hoʻokuʻu ‘ia ‘o Mozart, pau ka paio. Noa ‘o Mozart mai kona haku hana ame ke kauoha o kona makuakāne e ho‘i mai. Kapa ‘o Solomon i ke ka‘alele ‘ana o Mozart like me he "huliau nui", ame loli kō Mozart ola.[20]

Ka wā mua ma Vienna[E ho'opololei | edit source]

Ho‘omaka maika‘i ka ‘oihana hou o Mozart. Ho‘okani pinepine ‘oia me he mea piano. ‘O kekahi hanana ka hoʻokūkū me Muzio Clementi no ka ‘Emepela ma 24 December 1781.[19] Kākau ‘o New Grove, "‘o ia ka mea piano ‘oi loa ma Vienna."[19] Ho‘i, hoʻowaiwai ‘o Mozart ame he haku mele: i ka wā o 1781–1782, kākau ‘oia i ke keaka mele ‘o Die Entführung aus dem Serail ("Ke Kā‘ili ‘Ana mai ka Seraglio"). Ho‘omaka ua keaka mele la ma 16 Iulai 1782 ame he holomua ‘oia. Ho‘okani ‘ia ke keaka mele "ma nā wahi i ‘ōlelo Kelemānia ma ‘Eulopa",[19] ame ho‘okahua i ke kūlana o Mozart me he haku mele.

Na Joseph Lange ke ki‘i o Constanze Mozart (1782)

I ka manawa o kona paio me ‘Akipihopa Colloredo, ne‘e aku ‘o Mozart (1 Mei ai‘ole 2 Mei 1781) me ka ‘ohana Weber, i ne‘e ai mai Mannheim iā Vienna. Make ka makuakāne, ‘o Fridolin, ame kipa ka ‘ohana i nā mea māka‘ika‘i.[21] Male ‘o Aloysia, ka mea i aloha ‘ia e Mozart, me ka mea hana keaka ‘o Joseph Lange, pēlā, aloha ‘o Mozart i ke kaikamahine ‘ekolu, ‘o Constanze. Male lāua, me ka "‘ae kūʻē" o ka makuakane ‘o Leopold (New Grove), ma 4 ‘Aukake 1782.[22] Hānau ‘o Constanze i nā keiki ‘eono; ola wale nō ‘elua keiki: ‘o Karl Thomas (1784–1858) ame ‘o Franz Xaver Wolfgang (1791–1844; he haku mele).

I nā makahiki o 1782–1783, Ho‘okama‘āina ‘o Mozart i nā hana o J. S. Bach ame ‘o G.F. Handel no ka mea o ka hoʻololi o Baron Gottfried van Swieten, ka mea i kuleana i nā mele na nā mea ‘oi loa o ka wā Baroque.‘O ka hua o kō Mozart ho‘opa‘a o keia mau hana kekahi mau hana i hoʻopili i ke ‘ano Baroque, ame ho‘ololi loa i kana ‘ōlelo mele, like me nā paukū fugal ma Die Zauberflöte ("Ka ‘Ohe Kani Kalakupua"), ame ma ka hopena o Symphony 41.

Ma 1783, kipa ‘o Wolfgang ame ‘o Constanze i ka ‘ohana o Mozart ma Salzburg, akā, ‘a‘ole holomau ke kipa. Ho‘omaka ke kipa i ka haku mele ‘ana o kekahi mele nui o Mozart, ‘o Mass in C Minor, i ho‘omaka ‘ia ma Salzburg (akā ‘a‘ole ho‘opau). Hīmeni ‘o Constanze ma ka ho‘omaka.[23]

Mahope o kona ne‘e aku iā Vienna, hui ‘o Mozart iā Joseph Haydn ame ho‘āikāne lāua; nānā iā Haydn and Mozart. I ka manawa i kipa ‘o Haydn iā Vienna, ho‘okani pū lāua ma he string quartet ulu wale. Kākau ‘ia nā quartet ‘eono i ho‘ola‘a iā Haydn (K. 387, K. 421, K. 428, K. 458, K. 464, and K. 465) mai 1782–85, me he pane i kō Haydn Opus 33 mai 1781. I ka manawa i ho‘olohe ‘o Haydn i nā quartet o Mozart, ilihia ‘oia ame ‘ī iā Leopold, "Mamua o ke Akua ame me he kanaka pono, pono au e ha‘i iā ‘oe, ‘o kou keiki ka haku mele i ‘ike au: He kohu kona, ame, ka ‘ikena loa o ka haku mele ‘ana." I nā makahiki 1782–1785, ho‘okani ‘o Mozart i kona concert no ka piano me he leokū pāhaki ma kona mau ʻaha hīmeni.

Kākau ‘oia i nā concerto ‘ekolu ai‘ole ‘eha no kekahi kau ʻaha hīmeni, ame no ka mea o ke kaka‘ikahi o ka wehena ma nā hale keaka, hoʻokaʻawale ‘o Mozart i nā wahi ‘ē: he lumi nui ma Trattnerhof, he hale papa‘i; ame ka lumi hulahula o Mehlgrube, he hale ‘aina.[24] Makemake nui ʻia nā ‘aha hīmeni , ame kapa ‘ia nā concerto i haku mele ‘o Mozart i kona hana ‘oi loa. Kākau ‘o Solomon: i keia wā, hana ‘o Mozart i "he pili hui maika‘i ‘ana mawaena o he haku mele-mea ho‘okani ake ame he anaina māhie, i ha‘awi ‘ia ka manawa kūpono e nānā i ka ho‘ololi ame ka ho‘omaika‘i o ke ‘ano mele nui".[24]

Me ke kālā nui i loa‘a e Mozart ma kona mau ‘aha hīmeni ame kekahi mau wahi, ola waiwai ‘oia ame ‘o Constanze. Ne‘e aku ka ‘ohana i he hale papa‘i pipi‘i, me he ho‘olimalima o he mau 460 florin.[25] Kū‘ai mai ‘o Mozart i he fortepiano maika‘i mai Anton Walter no ke kumu kū‘ai o he mau 900 florin, a me he pākaukau pahupahu no ke kumu o he mau 300 florin.[25] Kipaku ka ‘ohana Mozart i kekahi kaiki kāne ‘o Karl Thomas i ke kula pipi‘i[26][27] ame mālama i nā kanaka hana. No ka mea o keia mau koho, ‘a‘ole waiwai ka ‘ohana Mozart ma nā makahiki mahope.[28][29]

Ma 14 Kekemapa 1784, he Makona-Noa ‘o Mozart. Komo pae ‘oia i he hui malū ‘o "Zur Wohltätigkeit" ("Beneficence").[30] Nui Makona-Noa iā Mozart ma ka mahope o kona ola; hele i nā hālāwai, he Makona kekahi o kona aikāne, ame haku mele ‘o Mozart i nā mele Makona. E nānā iā: Mozart ame Makona-Noa.

1786–1787: Ke keaka mele[E ho'opololei | edit source]

Holomua ‘o Die Entführung aus dem Serail, akā, i nā makahiki mahope, kākau iki ‘o Mozart i nā keaka mele. Kākau ‘oia i nā keaka mele ‘elua i ho‘opau ‘ole ‘ia ai ame ka mahele-‘ekahi ‘o Der Schauspieldirektor. I kēlā manawa, ‘o kona ‘oihana ka mea piano ame ka mea kākau i nā concerto. Akā, ma ka hope o 1785, huli ‘o Mozart i kona kakau ‘ana. Ho‘opau ‘oia e kākau ma‘amau i nā concerto no ka piano on a regular basis,[31] ame ho‘omaka i kona hui ‘ana me ka mea mele Lorenzo da Ponte. Ma 1786, aia ka ho‘omaka ‘o The Marriage of Figaro ma Vienna. Holomua ke keaka mele ma Vienna, ame ma Prague ma ka hope o kēlā makahiki. Mahope o ka holomua ma Prague, aia he uku komikina no he keaka mele na Mozart ame Da Ponte, ‘o Don Giovanni, i ho‘omaka ai ma 1787 me ka holomua ma Prague ame hana hou, ma Vienna ma 1788. ‘Ike ‘ia nā keaka mele ‘elua me nā hana mele nui o Mozart.

Ma Kekemapa 1787, loa‘a he ‘oihana aloali‘i e Mozart. Ho‘onoho ‘o ‘Emepela Iosepa II iāia me kona "haku mele chamber", he ‘oihana i ho‘ohāmama ‘ia ai ma ka mahina mamua a‘e i ka make o Gluck. Akā, he hapa-‘oihana. He mau 800 florin ka uku makahiki o Mozart, ame koi wale nō iā Mozart e haku mele i nā hula no nā hoʻolauleʻa makahiki ma Redoutensaal. Hoʻohalahala ‘o Mozart iā Constanze; ‘o ka uku, "nui no ko‘u hana, iki no he aha hiki ia‘u ke hana".[32] Nui kēia uku, no ka mea, ke pa‘akikī kona ola, kōkua ke kālā. Hō‘ike nā mo‘olelo ‘aha: makemake ‘o Iosepa e hō‘oia‘i‘o, ‘a‘ole ‘o Mozart e hele aku mai Vienna e huli i nā ‘oihana maika‘i i kekahi wahi.[32]

Ma 1787, hele ‘o Ludwig van Beethoven iā Vienna ame noho no ‘elua pule, no ka mea, makemake ‘oia e ho‘opa‘a me Mozart. i ka manawa o keia kipa, kū‘ē ka ‘ōlelo hō‘ike no he aha e hana. Aia ‘ekolu koho mua: Ho‘olohe ‘o Mozart i kō Beethoven ho‘okani ‘ana ame ho‘omaika‘i iāia, hō‘ole ‘o Mozart iā Beethoven me he haumana, ame ‘a‘ole hui lāua. (E nānā iā: Mozart and Beethoven.)

Na Dora Stock kēia ki‘i o Mozart ma silverpoint, i ka wā i kipa ‘o Mozart iā Dresden ma Apelila 1789

1788–1790[E ho'opololei | edit source]

Ma ka hope o ke kekeke, mae ka ‘oihana o Mozart.

Ma 1786, ho‘opau ‘oia e ho‘okani pinepine ma nā ‘aha mele lehulehu, ame hā‘ule kona uku.[33] No nā mea ho‘okani, pa‘akīkī keia wā ma Vienna no ka mea, aia ‘o Austria ma ke kaua, mae ka hoʻowaiwai ame ka hiki o nā ali‘i e kāko‘o i ka mele.[34]

Ma ka waena o 1788, ne‘e aku ‘o Mozart ame kona ‘ohana mai Vienna i nā hale emi ma ka hu‘a o Alsergrund.[33] Ho‘omaka ‘o Mozart e hō‘ai‘ē i ke kālā, pinepine mai kona hoaloha ame Makona Michael Puchberg; ola "he mahele o he mau leka mākilo" (New Grove). Hoʻopuka manaʻo ‘o Maynard Solomon; ‘eha ‘o Mozart i he kaumaha i kēlā manawa, ame ho‘oiki paha kona haku mele ‘ana.[35] ‘O nā hana nui o keia wā, nā symphony ‘ekolu mahope loa (1788: 39, 40, 41; ‘a‘ole i ‘ike ‘ia inā ho‘okani kēia mau symphony ma ke ola o Mozart), ame ke keaka mele mahope loa o Mozart ame Da Ponte, Cosi fan tutte, i ho‘omaka ‘ia ma 1790.

I keia wā, hele ‘o Mozart i nā huaka‘i lō‘ihi, no ka mea, makemake ‘oia e holomua i kona pōmaika‘i: he kipa ma ke kupulau o 1789 iā Leipzig, Dresden, ame Berlin (see: Huaka‘i iā Berlin o Mozart), ame he kipa ma 1790 iā Frankfurt, Mannheim, ame kekahi mau kūlanakauhale Kelemānia. Holomua iki keia mau kipa ame ‘a‘ole kōkua nā pilikia waiwai o Mozart.

1791[E ho'opololei | edit source]

Ma ka makahiki mahope loa o Mozart, ā kona ma‘i ame make, huahua nui ‘oia, ame (ma ka nānā o Maynard Solomon) ‘oia ka manawa o ke ola hou pilikino.[36] I keia manawa, kākau ‘o Mozart i he mau mele nui, like kona hana i mahalo ‘ia: ke keaka mele Ka ‘Ohe Kani Ho‘okalakupua, ka concerto no ka piano mahope loa (K. 595 in B flat), ‘o Concerto No Ke Kalioneke K. 622, ka mahope loa o kona string quintet (K. 614 ma E flat), ka motet Ave verum corpus K. 618, ame Requiem K. 626, i ho‘opau ‘ole ‘ia.

Ho‘omaka e holomua ka waiwai o Mozart (‘o ia ke kumu o ka hopohopo ma 1790). ‘A‘ole maopopo loa ka ‘ōlelo hō‘ike[37], akā ho‘ohiki ka po‘e waiwai i mahalo iāia ma Hungary ame ma Amsterdam i nā uku makahiki iā Mozart, no ka haku mele. Ho‘owaiwai nui paha ‘o Mozart i ke kūa‘i aku o nā mele hula i kākau ai ‘oia no kona ‘oihana me he haku mele ‘imepeliala.[37] Ho‘opau ‘oia e hō‘ai‘ē i ke kālā mai Puchberg ame ho‘omaka ‘oia e ho‘oka‘a.[37]

Hō‘oluolu ‘o Mozart ma ka holomua o kona hana nui, ‘oia ho‘i, ‘o Ka ‘Ohe Kani Ho‘okalakupua (nui ka manawa o kona ho‘okani mawaena o ka wā o kona ho‘omaka ame kō Mozart make)[38] ame "Little Masonic Cantata", K. 623, i ho‘omaka ai ma 15 Nowemapa, 1791.[39]

Ka make[E ho'opololei | edit source]

Nānā iā: Make o Mozart

Na Barbara Krafft keia ki‘i ma 1819

Hele ‘o Mozart ā ma‘i ma Prague. Aia ‘o Mozart ma‘ō no ka ho‘omaka ma 6 Kepakemapa o kona keaka mele ‘o La clemenza di Tito, i kākau ‘ia ai ma 1791 ma ka uku komikina no ka poni mō‘i no ka ‘Emepela.[40] Hiki ‘oia e ho‘omau i kona ‘oihana i wahi manawa; alaka‘i ‘oia i ka ho‘omaka o The Magic Flute ma 30 Kepakemapa. Ho‘olawehala ka ma‘i ma 20 Nowemapa, ame i kēlā manawa moe ma‘i ‘oia, ‘eha‘eha ‘oia i ka ‘ea kūka‘a ame ka lua‘i.

Mālama ‘ia ‘o Mozart ma kona ma‘i hope loa e Constanze, kona kaikaina muli loa ‘o Sophie, ame ke kauka o ka ‘ohana, ‘o Thomas Franz Closset. Aia ka ‘ōlelo hō‘ike, makemake nui loa kona mana‘o e ho‘opau i kona Requiem. Li‘ili‘i ka pahiki, ha‘i ‘oia i ka mele iā Süssmayr.[41][42]

Make ‘o Mozart ma ka hola ‘ekahi ma ke kahakiaka ma 5 Kekemapa. Penei ka hō‘ike ‘ano o New Grove e pili ana i kona ho‘olewa: "Kanu ‘ia ‘o Mozart i he hē ‘awelika, me ka mēheuheu hē Vienna i kēlā wā, ma ka ilina o St Marx mawaho o ke kūlanakauhale ma 7 Kekemapa. Inā (kākau nā hō‘ike hope) ‘a‘ole hele mai nā mea kanikau i kona hē, ‘oia me ka mēheuheu hē Vienna i kēlā wā; mahope, kākau ‘o Jahn (1856), aia ‘o Salieri, ‘o Süssmayr, ‘o van Swieten ame wiliwili kekahi mau mea ho‘okani ma ka hē. I kēlā lā, ‘a‘ole he ‘ino ame he hua; ‘olu‘olu ka lā."[33]

Ke ki‘i[E ho'opololei | edit source]

Nā kūmole[E ho'opololei | edit source]

  1. Solomon 1995, p. 44
  2. Halliwell 1998, p. 172, pp. 183-185
  3. Solomon 1995, p. 106
  4. Solomon 1995, p. 103
  5. Solomon 1995, p. 98
  6. Solomon 1995, p. 107
  7. Solomon 1995, p. 109
  8. Rushton (1992)
  9. Deutsch 1965, p. 174
  10. Solomon 1995, p. 149
  11. Halliwell 1998, pp. 304-305
  12. Rushton 1992, p. 3
  13. Halliwell 1998, p. 305
  14. For details see Halliwell 1998, chs. 18-19.
  15. Solomon 1995, p. 157
  16. See, e.g. Halliwell 1998, p. 322
  17. Rushton 1992, §3
  18. Deutsch 1965, p. 176
  19. 19.0 19.1 19.2 19.3 Rushton 1992, §4
  20. Solomon 1995, p. 247
  21. Solomon 1995, p. 253
  22. Solomon 1995, §16
  23. Solomon 1995, p. 270
  24. 24.0 24.1 Solomon 1995, p. 293
  25. 25.0 25.1 Solomon 1995, p. 298
  26. Solomon 1995, p. 430
  27. Solomon 1995, p. 578
  28. Solomon 1995, §27
  29. Solomon 1995, p. 431
  30. Solomon 1995, p. 321
  31. Solomon 1995
  32. 32.0 32.1 Solomon 1995, pp. 423–424
  33. 33.0 33.1 33.2 Rushton 1992, §6
  34. Solomon 1995
  35. Steptoe 1988, p. 208
  36. Solomon 1995, §30
  37. 37.0 37.1 37.2 Solomon 1995, p. 477
  38. Solomon 1995, p. 487
  39. Solomon 1995, p. 490
  40. Solomon 1995, p. 485
  41. Solomon 1995, p. 493
  42. Solomon 1995, p. 588