Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart

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‘O Mozart ma 1780. Na Johann Nepomuk della Croce ke ki‘i.

He haku mele ko‘iko‘i ‘o Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (27 Ianuali 17565 Kekemapa 1791; inoa piha Joannes Chrysostomus Wolfgangus Theophilus Mozart) o ka wā kelakikala. Makemake nui ‘ia ‘o Mozart o nā haku mele kelakikala.

Kona ola[E ho'opololei | edit source]

‘Ohana, wā li‘ili‘i[E ho'opololei | edit source]

Hānau ʻia ‘o Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart iā Leopold lāua ʻo Anna Maria Pertl Mozart i ke alanui Getreidegasse 9 ma Salzburg. ‘O Maria Anna (1751–1829) (kapakapa ‘ia "Nannerl") ke kaikuahine ho‘okahi wale nō o Wolfgang i ola ai mamua o ka hānau ʻia. Papekema ‘ia ‘o Wolfgang ma keia lā a‘e ma St. Rupert's Cathedral. Kapa ka mo‘olelo papakema iā Mozart ‘o Joannes Chrysostomus Wolfgangus Theophilus Mozart. Akā, ua kapa ‘o Mozart iāia ‘o Wolfgang Amadè Mozart. Nui nā ‘ano kona inoa.

He hope Kapellmeister kō Mozart makuakāne, Leopold Mozart, o ka hui ho‘okani pila aloali‘i o ka ‘akipihopa o Salzburg. He haku mele ‘o Leopold. He kumu ‘ike ‘ia ‘oia; ma ka makahiki o ka hānau o Mozart, ua pa‘i ‘oia i he puke a‘o holomua no ka pila, ‘oia ho‘i, ‘o Versuch einer gründlichen Violinschule.

He ki‘i (ʻaʻohe i hōʻikeʻia ka inoa o ke kahaki‘i) o ke keiki Mozart, na Pietro Antonio Lorenzoni paha; ua pena ‘ia ma 1763 ma he uku komikina mai Leopold

I nā makahiki ‘ehiku o Nannerl, ha‘awi ‘o Leopold iāia i nā ha‘awina no ka kulawie. Nānā ‘o Mozart i nā ha‘awina, me ka ho‘opunihei: ua mo‘olelo kona kaikuahine; ho‘ohala manawa ‘oia i ka kulawie, loa‘a nā hapakolu, [...] ame hō‘ike kona le‘ale‘a i leo maika‘i ai [iāia]."

Ua ho‘omau ‘o Nannerl: "i nā makahiki ‘ehā o Mozart, ua ho‘omaka kona makuakāne, like me he mea pā‘ani, e a‘o iāia i he mau minuet ame he mau mele ma ke kulawie [...] hiki iāia ke ho‘okani iāia me kīnā ‘ole ame ka hune nui, a he pana hemolele kona. [...] nā makahiki ʻelima o Mozart, haku mele ‘ē ‘oia i nā mele iki, i ho‘okani ai ‘oia i kona makuakāne, i kākau iā lākou." ‘O kēlā mau mele ‘o Andante (K. 1a) ame ‘o Allegro in C (K. 1b).

‘Ī ka mea hō‘ike-ola Maynard Solomon, ‘oiai ‘o Leopold i he kumu aloha keiki, aia ka ‘ōlelo hō‘ike i hoʻoikaika ‘ia ai ‘o Wolfgang e holomua mawaho o nā ha‘awina o kona makuakāne. ‘O kō Mozart hana, kona mele mua, kū‘oko‘a (ame pakī me ka ‘īnika), ame kona hiki mua e ho‘okani i ka pila. Pū‘iwa ‘o Leopold. Pili ka makuakāne ame ke keiki kāne; hele mai kēia mau hanana iā Leopold ā hau‘oli.

Ke aniani ka no‘eau mele po‘okela o kana keiki kāne, hā‘awipio ‘o Leopold i ka haku mele. ‘Oia ke kumu wale nō o Wolfgang ma kona wā li‘ili‘i. A‘o ‘o Leopold i kana keiki i nā ‘ōlelo, nā kumuhana kula, ame ka mele ho‘okani.

Ho‘okani ka ‘ohana o Mozart: ‘o Leopold, ‘o Wolfgang, ame ‘o Nannerl. Nā Carmontelle ke ki‘i pena wai, ca. 1763[1]

1762-1773: Nā makahiki o ke ka‘ahele[E ho'opololei | edit source]

I ka wā o nā makahiki ho‘omohala o Mozart, hele kona ‘ohana i kekahi mau wahi ma ‘Eulopa. Ua hō‘ike ‘ia nā keiki. Ho‘omaka nā huaka‘i me he hō‘ikena ma ka makahiki 1792 ma ke Aloali‘i o ka ‘Elele Manakoho o Pawalia ma Munich, ā laila (ma ka makahiki like), ma ka Aloali‘i ‘Imepeliala ma Vienna ame Prague. Hele ka ‘ohana ma he ka‘apuni lō‘ihi (‘ekolu-hapalua makahiki) i nā aloali‘i o Munich, Mannheim, Palika, Lākana, The Hague, hele hou iā Paris, a hele mai i ka home ma o Zürich, Donaueschingen, ame Munich. Ma keia huaka‘i, hui ‘o Mozart i nā mea hoʻokani pila (he helu nui) ame kama‘āina iāia me nā mele o kekahi mau haku mele. He ho‘ohuli mana‘o nui ‘o Johann Christian Bach iā Mozart. Hui lāua ma Lākana mai 1764–65. Hele hou ka ‘ohana iā Vienna ma 1767 a ua noho ma‘ō ā Kekemapa 1768.

Ho‘omāluhiluhi keia mau huaka‘i, no ka mea o ke kūlana makakumu o ke ka‘ahele ma kēlā wā, ka pono e kali i nā palapala kono o nā ali‘i, ame nā ma‘i maika‘i ‘ole mamao o ka home. Ua ma‘i ka mākuakane ma Lākana ma ke kauwela o 1764, ā laila ua ma‘i nā keiki ‘elua ma The Hague ma ka hā‘ulelau o 1765.

Mahope o ‘ekahi makahiki ma Salzburg, hele ‘o Leopold ame Wolfgang iā Italy, ame ho‘i aku iā kō Wolgang makuahine ame ke kaikua‘ana ma ka home. Ho‘omaka ka huaka‘i ma Kekemapa 1769 ame ho‘opau ma Malaki 1771. Like me nā huaka‘i mamua, ‘o ke kumu o keia huaka‘i ka hō‘ike o nā hiki o Mozart me he mea ho‘okani ame he haku mele i ho‘omakua wiki ai. Hui ‘o Mozart iā G.B. Martini ma Bologna, ame ‘āpono ‘ia me he lālā o Accademia Filarmonica. Ma Loma, ho‘olohe ho‘okahi wale nō ‘o Mozart iā Miserere (na Gregorio Allegri) ma he hana ma Sistine Chapel, ā laila kākau piha ‘oia iāia mai ka hoʻomanaʻo ʻana, a ho‘i hou e ho‘opololei i nā hewa iki; pēlā, Hana ‘o Mozart i ke kope kolohe mua o keia mele kia‘i ‘ia o ka Wakikana.

Ma Milana, ua kākau ‘o Mozart i ke keaka mele, ‘o Mitridate Rè di Ponto (1770), i kākela ‘ia ai. Ā laila, ho‘i mai nā uku komikina no ke keaka mele, ame ho‘i hou (‘elua manawa) ‘o Wolfgang ame ‘o Leopold mai Salzburg iā Milan (‘Aukake-Kekemapa 1771, ‘Okakopa 1772-Malaki 1773) no ka haku mele ame nā ho‘omaka o Ascanio in Alba (1771) ame ‘o Lucio Silla (1772). Manaʻolana ‘o Leopold i hua ai keia mau kipa ma he wae ‘oihana no kona keiki kāne ma ‘Ikalia, akā, ‘a‘ole hana ‘ia.[2]

Ma ka ho‘opau o ka huaka‘i hope loa o ‘Ikalia, ua kākau ‘o Mozart i ka hana ho‘okani i hana ‘ia i keia manawa, ka hīmeni kū pākahi cantata "Exsultate, jubilate", K. 165.

1773–1777: Ke aloali‘i o Salzburg[E ho'opololei | edit source]

Mahope o kona hele mai ‘ana hope loa me kona makuakāne mai ‘Ikalia (13 Malaki 1773), Hai ‘ia ‘o Mozart me he mea ho‘okani pila aloali‘i e ke ali‘i o Salzburg, ‘o Keiki Ali‘i-‘Akipihopa Hieronymus Colloredo. He kanaka punahele ‘o Mozart ma Salzburg. Ma‘ō, nui kona hoaloha,[3] a he manawa kūpono kona e haku ma nā ‘ano mahele (nā symphony, sonata, string quartet, serenade, ame keaka mele). I kō ‘oukou wā, hana ‘ia kekahi mau hana ho‘okani i hana ai ‘oia i kēlā wā. Pēnei, i ka manawa mawaena o ‘Apelila ame Kekemapa o 1775, ho‘omōhala ‘o Mozart i he hoihoi no nā concerto no ka pila. Hana ‘oia i nā concerto no ka pila ‘elima. Ma ka makahiki 1776, hana ‘oia i nā concerto no ka piano.[4]

I loko o keia mau ho‘okō ‘ana, hele ‘o Mozart ā kaumaha iā Salzburg ame hoʻoikaika e huli i he ‘oihana ma kahi ‘ē. ‘O ke kumu o ke kaumaha, kona uku hana iki, he mau 150 florin ma ka makahiki.[5] Ho‘i, makemake ‘o Mozart e haku i nā keaka mele, ame kakaʻikahi ka hanana no ke keaka mele ma Salzburg. Ke ho‘opau ke keaka o ke aloali‘i ma 1775, ho‘omaika‘i ‘ole ke kūlana.[6] Kahamaha nā huaka‘i ‘elua (no he ‘oihana) i ka noho ‘ana ma Salzburg. Kipa ‘o Wolfgang ame kona makuakāne iā Vienna (mai 14 Iulai - 26 Kepakemapa 1773), ame Munich (from 6 Kekemapa 1774 to Malaki 1775). ‘A‘ole holomua nā kipa, akā, i ka huaka‘i ma Munich, holomua ka ho‘omaka o kō Mozart keaka mele, La finta giardiniera.[7]

1777–1778: Ka huaka‘i ma Palika[E ho'opololei | edit source]

Ma ‘Aukake 1777, haʻalele ‘o Mozart i kona ‘oihana ma Salzburg ame hele aku (23 Kepakemapa) ma kekahi huaka‘i e huli i he ‘oihana, ame kipa iā Augsburg, Mannheim, Palika, and Munich.[8] No ka mea o ka hō‘ole o ka ‘Akipihopa Colloredo e kala iā Leopold (e ka‘ahele me Mozart), kauoha ‘ia ka makuahine o Mozart, Anna Maria, e hele pū me ia.

Ma Mannheim, kama‘āina ‘o Mozart me nā lālā o ka hui hoʻokani pila o Mannheim, ka hui hoʻokani pila nō ka ‘oi ma Europe i kēlā wā. Aloha ‘oia iā Aloysia Weber, ke kahi o nā kaikamahine ‘ehā ma he ‘ohana mele.

Aia he mau ‘oihana wehe ma Mannheim, akā, ‘a‘ole holomua ‘oia, a hele ‘o Mozart iā Palika (14 Malaki 1778)[9] e huli hou. ‘A‘ole maika‘i kona pōmaikaʻi ma‘ō; hō‘ike ke kahi o kona mau leka, aia he hā‘awi no he ‘oihana me he mea ‘okana ma Versailles, akā ‘a‘ole makemake ‘o Mozart i kēlā ‘oihana.[10] Hele ‘oia ā ‘ai‘ē ame pono e kū‘ai aku i nā waiwai.[11] I ka manawa o ka huaka‘i, hele kō Mozart makuahine ā ma‘i ame make ‘oia (23 June 1778);[12] Aia he mau ‘emo i loa‘a ke kauka; manaʻo wale ‘ia e Halliwell, aia ‘a‘ohe kālā.[13]

I ka manawa i noho ‘o Wolfgang iā Palika, huli ‘o Leopold i nā ‘oihana i ka home ma Salzburg no kona keiki kāne.[14] Me ke kāko‘o o nā ali‘i kūloko, loaʻa he ‘oihana maika‘i e Leopold no Wolfgang, (me he mea ‘okana no ke aloali‘i ame haku o ka ‘aha hīmeni), me he uku hana o he mau 450 florin.[15]

Akā, kali ‘o Wolfgang e pani i keia ‘oihana,[16] ame mahope o kona hele aku ‘ana mai Palika (26 Kepakemapa 1778), hele ‘oia iā Mannheim, ā laila ‘o Munich; manaʻolana ‘oia i loa‘a he ‘oihana e ia mawaho o Salzburg. Ma Munich, hui hou ‘oia iā Aloysia, he pu‘ukani holomua. ‘A‘ole aloha ‘o Aloysia iā Mozart.[17]

Hele ‘o Mozart ma 15 Ianuali 1779 ame pani i kona ‘oihana hou. ‘A‘ole ‘olu‘olu ‘oia ma Salzburg.

Ma ka huaka‘i ma Palika, kākau ‘oia i kona mau mele kaulana; ‘oia ho‘i, ka sonata no ka piano ma A minor, K. 310/300d, ma 1778; ame ka Symphony "Palika" (no. 31), ho‘okani ‘ia ma Palika ma nā lā 12 ame 18 Iune, 1778.[18]

‘O Mozart ma 1777. He ki‘i i noi ‘ia e Padre Martini.

1781: Ka hele ‘ana ma Vienna[E ho'opololei | edit source]

Ma Ianuali 1781, holomua ka ho‘omaka o ke keaka mele,Idomeneo, ma Munich. Keia Malaki a‘e, kēnā ‘ia ka haku mele iā Vienna, no ka mea, hele kona haku hana, ‘o Keiki ali‘i-‘Akipihopa Colloredo o Salzburg, i he hana hoʻohiwahiwa no ka ho‘okomo o Emperor Joseph II. Ke hana Colloredo iā Mozart me he kanaka hana, ame ke pāpā ‘ia ‘o Mozart e ka ʻakipihopa e ho‘okani no ka ‘Emepela ma ka aloali‘i o Countess Thun (‘o ka uku ka hapalua o kona uku o Salzburg), ho‘ohuhū ‘ia loa ‘o Mozart, he kanaka holomua ma Munich. Ma ka mahina o Mei, ho‘onui ua paio la: ho‘ā‘o ‘o Mozart e ha‘alele, akā hō‘ole ‘ia. Ma keia mahina a‘e, ‘Āpono ka ‘ae e hoʻi aku, akā hana ‘ia kūamuamu: Ho‘oku‘u ‘ia ‘o Mozart "me he peku ma ka ‘ōkole", i hana ‘ia e ke kuene o ka ‘Akipihopa, Kauna Arco. Ia wā nō, hō‘ike ‘o Mozart i nā manawa kūpono e ola maika‘i ma Vienna. Manaʻo ‘oia, pono ‘oia e noho ma‘ō ame ulu i kona ‘oihana.[19]

No Mozart, hana ‘ia pa‘akīkī ka paio me ka ʻAkipihopa e ka mea ‘oia‘i‘o i kōkua kona makuakāne i ka ‘ao‘ao o ka ʻAkipihopa: mana‘olana ‘oia i hele mai kana keiki kāne i ka manawa i ho‘i ‘o Colloredo. Kākau kona makuakane iā Wolfgang, ame ho‘olā‘au iāia e ʻuao me kō lāua haku hana. Makemake loa ‘o Wolfgang e hana ho‘okahi i kona ‘oihana ma Vienna. Ke hoʻokuʻu ‘ia ‘o Mozart, pau ka paio. Noa ‘o Mozart mai kona haku hana ame ke kauoha o kona makuakāne e ho‘i mai. Kapa ‘o Solomon i ke ka‘alele ‘ana o Mozart like me he "huliau nui", ame loli kō Mozart ola.[20]

Ka wā mua ma Vienna[E ho'opololei | edit source]

Ho‘omaka maika‘i ka ‘oihana hou o Mozart. Ho‘okani pinepine ‘oia me he mea piano. ‘O kekahi hanana ka hoʻokūkū me Muzio Clementi no ka ‘Emepela ma 24 December 1781.[19] Kākau ‘o New Grove, "‘o ia ka mea piano ‘oi loa ma Vienna."[19] Ho‘i, hoʻowaiwai ‘o Mozart ame he haku mele: i ka wā o 1781–1782, kākau ‘oia i ke keaka mele ‘o Die Entführung aus dem Serail ("Ke Kā‘ili ‘Ana mai ka Seraglio"). Ho‘omaka ua keaka mele la ma 16 Iulai 1782 ame he holomua ‘oia. Ho‘okani ‘ia ke keaka mele "ma nā wahi i ‘ōlelo Kelemānia ma ‘Eulopa",[19] ame ho‘okahua i ke kūlana o Mozart me he haku mele.

Na Joseph Lange ke ki‘i o Constanze Mozart (1782)

I ka manawa o kona paio me ‘Akipihopa Colloredo, ne‘e aku ‘o Mozart (1 Mei ai‘ole 2 Mei 1781) me ka ‘ohana Weber, i ne‘e ai mai Mannheim iā Vienna. Make ka makuakāne, ‘o Fridolin, ame kipa ka ‘ohana i nā mea māka‘ika‘i.[21] Male ‘o Aloysia, ka mea i aloha ‘ia e Mozart, me ka mea hana keaka ‘o Joseph Lange, pēlā, aloha ‘o Mozart i ke kaikamahine ‘ekolu, ‘o Constanze. Male lāua, me ka "‘ae kūʻē" o ka makuakane ‘o Leopold (New Grove), ma 4 ‘Aukake 1782.[22] Hānau ‘o Constanze i nā keiki ‘eono; ola wale nō ‘elua keiki: ‘o Karl Thomas (1784–1858) ame ‘o Franz Xaver Wolfgang (1791–1844; he haku mele).

I nā makahiki o 1782–1783, Ho‘okama‘āina ‘o Mozart i nā hana o J. S. Bach ame ‘o G.F. Handel no ka mea o ka hoʻololi o Baron Gottfried van Swieten, ka mea i kuleana i nā mele na nā mea ‘oi loa o ka wā Baroque.‘O ka hua o kō Mozart ho‘opa‘a o keia mau hana kekahi mau hana i hoʻopili i ke ‘ano Baroque, ame ho‘ololi loa i kana ‘ōlelo mele, like me nā paukū fugal ma Die Zauberflöte ("Ka ‘Ohe Kani Kalakupua"), ame ma ka hopena o Symphony 41.

Ma 1783, kipa ‘o Wolfgang ame ‘o Constanze i ka ‘ohana o Mozart ma Salzburg, akā, ‘a‘ole holomau ke kipa. Ho‘omaka ke kipa i ka haku mele ‘ana o kekahi mele nui o Mozart, ‘o Mass in C Minor, i ho‘omaka ‘ia ma Salzburg (akā ‘a‘ole ho‘opau). Hīmeni ‘o Constanze ma ka ho‘omaka.[23]

Mahope o kona ne‘e aku iā Vienna, hui ‘o Mozart iā Joseph Haydn ame ho‘āikāne lāua; nānā iā Haydn and Mozart. I ka manawa i kipa ‘o Haydn iā Vienna, ho‘okani pū lāua ma he string quartet ulu wale. Kākau ‘ia nā quartet ‘eono i ho‘ola‘a iā Haydn (K. 387, K. 421, K. 428, K. 458, K. 464, and K. 465) mai 1782–85, me he pane i kō Haydn Opus 33 mai 1781. I ka manawa i ho‘olohe ‘o Haydn i nā quartet o Mozart, ilihia ‘oia ame ‘ī iā Leopold, "Mamua o ke Akua ame me he kanaka pono, pono au e ha‘i iā ‘oe, ‘o kou keiki ka haku mele i ‘ike au: He kohu kona, ame, ka ‘ikena loa o ka haku mele ‘ana." I nā makahiki 1782–1785, ho‘okani ‘o Mozart i kona concert no ka piano me he leokū pāhaki ma kona mau ʻaha hīmeni.

Kākau ‘oia i nā concerto ‘ekolu ai‘ole ‘eha no kekahi kau ʻaha hīmeni, ame no ka mea o ke kaka‘ikahi o ka wehena ma nā hale keaka, hoʻokaʻawale ‘o Mozart i nā wahi ‘ē: he lumi nui ma Trattnerhof, he hale papa‘i; ame ka lumi hulahula o Mehlgrube, he hale ‘aina.[24] Makemake nui ʻia nā ‘aha hīmeni , ame kapa ‘ia nā concerto i haku mele ‘o Mozart i kona hana ‘oi loa. Kākau ‘o Solomon: i keia wā, hana ‘o Mozart i "he pili hui maika‘i ‘ana mawaena o he haku mele-mea ho‘okani ake ame he anaina māhie, i ha‘awi ‘ia ka manawa kūpono e nānā i ka ho‘ololi ame ka ho‘omaika‘i o ke ‘ano mele nui".[24]

Me ke kālā nui i loa‘a e Mozart ma kona mau ‘aha hīmeni ame kekahi mau wahi, ola waiwai ‘oia ame ‘o Constanze. Ne‘e aku ka ‘ohana i he hale papa‘i pipi‘i, me he ho‘olimalima o he mau 460 florin.[25] Kū‘ai mai ‘o Mozart i he fortepiano maika‘i mai Anton Walter no ke kumu kū‘ai o he mau 900 florin, a me he pākaukau pahupahu no ke kumu o he mau 300 florin.[25] Kipaku ka ‘ohana Mozart i kekahi kaiki kāne ‘o Karl Thomas i ke kula pipi‘i[26][27] ame mālama i nā kanaka hana. No ka mea o keia mau koho, ‘a‘ole waiwai ka ‘ohana Mozart ma nā makahiki mahope.[28][29]

Ma 14 Kekemapa 1784, he Makona-Noa ‘o Mozart. Komo pae ‘oia i he hui malū ‘o "Zur Wohltätigkeit" ("Beneficence").[30] Nui Makona-Noa iā Mozart ma ka mahope o kona ola; hele i nā hālāwai, he Makona kekahi o kona aikāne, ame haku mele ‘o Mozart i nā mele Makona. E nānā iā: Mozart ame Makona-Noa.

1786–1787: Ke keaka mele[E ho'opololei | edit source]

Holomua ‘o Die Entführung aus dem Serail, akā, i nā makahiki mahope, kākau iki ‘o Mozart i nā keaka mele. Kākau ‘oia i nā keaka mele ‘elua i ho‘opau ‘ole ‘ia ai ame ka mahele-‘ekahi ‘o Der Schauspieldirektor. I kēlā manawa, ‘o kona ‘oihana ka mea piano ame ka mea kākau i nā concerto. Akā, ma ka hope o 1785, huli ‘o Mozart i kona kakau ‘ana. Ho‘opau ‘oia e kākau ma‘amau i nā concerto no ka piano on a regular basis,[31] ame ho‘omaka i kona hui ‘ana me ka mea mele Lorenzo da Ponte. Ma 1786, aia ka ho‘omaka ‘o The Marriage of Figaro ma Vienna. Holomua ke keaka mele ma Vienna, ame ma Prague ma ka hope o kēlā makahiki. Mahope o ka holomua ma Prague, aia he uku komikina no he keaka mele na Mozart ame Da Ponte, ‘o Don Giovanni, i ho‘omaka ai ma 1787 me ka holomua ma Prague ame hana hou, ma Vienna ma 1788. ‘Ike ‘ia nā keaka mele ‘elua me nā hana mele nui o Mozart.

Ma Kekemapa 1787, loa‘a he ‘oihana aloali‘i e Mozart. Ho‘onoho ‘o ‘Emepela Iosepa II iāia me kona "haku mele chamber", he ‘oihana i ho‘ohāmama ‘ia ai ma ka mahina mamua a‘e i ka make o Gluck. Akā, he hapa-‘oihana. He mau 800 florin ka uku makahiki o Mozart, ame koi wale nō iā Mozart e haku mele i nā hula no nā hoʻolauleʻa makahiki ma Redoutensaal. Hoʻohalahala ‘o Mozart iā Constanze; ‘o ka uku, "nui no ko‘u hana, iki no he aha hiki ia‘u ke hana".[32] Nui kēia uku, no ka mea, ke pa‘akikī kona ola, kōkua ke kālā. Hō‘ike nā mo‘olelo ‘aha: makemake ‘o Iosepa e hō‘oia‘i‘o, ‘a‘ole ‘o Mozart e hele aku mai Vienna e huli i nā ‘oihana maika‘i i kekahi wahi.[32]

Ma 1787, hele ‘o Ludwig van Beethoven iā Vienna ame noho no ‘elua pule, no ka mea, makemake ‘oia e ho‘opa‘a me Mozart. i ka manawa o keia kipa, kū‘ē ka ‘ōlelo hō‘ike no he aha e hana. Aia ‘ekolu koho mua: Ho‘olohe ‘o Mozart i kō Beethoven ho‘okani ‘ana ame ho‘omaika‘i iāia, hō‘ole ‘o Mozart iā Beethoven me he haumana, ame ‘a‘ole hui lāua. (E nānā iā: Mozart and Beethoven.)

Na Dora Stock kēia ki‘i o Mozart ma silverpoint, i ka wā i kipa ‘o Mozart iā Dresden ma Apelila 1789

1788–1790[E ho'opololei | edit source]

Ma ka hope o ke kekeke, mae ka ‘oihana o Mozart.

Ma 1786, ho‘opau ‘oia e ho‘okani pinepine ma nā ‘aha mele lehulehu, ame hā‘ule kona uku.[33] No nā mea ho‘okani, pa‘akīkī keia wā ma Vienna no ka mea, aia ‘o Austria ma ke kaua, mae ka hoʻowaiwai ame ka hiki o nā ali‘i e kāko‘o i ka mele.[34]

Ma ka waena o 1788, ne‘e aku ‘o Mozart ame kona ‘ohana mai Vienna i nā hale emi ma ka hu‘a o Alsergrund.[33] Ho‘omaka ‘o Mozart e hō‘ai‘ē i ke kālā, pinepine mai kona hoaloha ame Makona Michael Puchberg; ola "he mahele o he mau leka mākilo" (New Grove). Hoʻopuka manaʻo ‘o Maynard Solomon; ‘eha ‘o Mozart i he kaumaha i kēlā manawa, ame ho‘oiki paha kona haku mele ‘ana.[35] ‘O nā hana nui o keia wā, nā symphony ‘ekolu mahope loa (1788: 39, 40, 41; ‘a‘ole i ‘ike ‘ia inā ho‘okani kēia mau symphony ma ke ola o Mozart), ame ke keaka mele mahope loa o Mozart ame Da Ponte, Cosi fan tutte, i ho‘omaka ‘ia ma 1790.

I keia wā, hele ‘o Mozart i nā huaka‘i lō‘ihi, no ka mea, makemake ‘oia e holomua i kona pōmaika‘i: he kipa ma ke kupulau o 1789 iā Leipzig, Dresden, ame Berlin (see: Huaka‘i iā Berlin o Mozart), ame he kipa ma 1790 iā Frankfurt, Mannheim, ame kekahi mau kūlanakauhale Kelemānia. Holomua iki keia mau kipa ame ‘a‘ole kōkua nā pilikia waiwai o Mozart.

1791[E ho'opololei | edit source]

Ma ka makahiki mahope loa o Mozart, ā kona ma‘i ame make, huahua nui ‘oia, ame (ma ka nānā o Maynard Solomon) ‘oia ka manawa o ke ola hou pilikino.[36] I keia manawa, kākau ‘o Mozart i he mau mele nui, like kona hana i mahalo ‘ia: ke keaka mele Ka ‘Ohe Kani Ho‘okalakupua, ka concerto no ka piano mahope loa (K. 595 in B flat), ‘o Concerto No Ke Kalioneke K. 622, ka mahope loa o kona string quintet (K. 614 ma E flat), ka motet Ave verum corpus K. 618, ame Requiem K. 626, i ho‘opau ‘ole ‘ia.

Ho‘omaka e holomua ka waiwai o Mozart (‘o ia ke kumu o ka hopohopo ma 1790). ‘A‘ole maopopo loa ka ‘ōlelo hō‘ike[37], akā ho‘ohiki ka po‘e waiwai i mahalo iāia ma Hungary ame ma Amsterdam i nā uku makahiki iā Mozart, no ka haku mele. Ho‘owaiwai nui paha ‘o Mozart i ke kūa‘i aku o nā mele hula i kākau ai ‘oia no kona ‘oihana me he haku mele ‘imepeliala.[37] Ho‘opau ‘oia e hō‘ai‘ē i ke kālā mai Puchberg ame ho‘omaka ‘oia e ho‘oka‘a.[37]

Hō‘oluolu ‘o Mozart ma ka holomua o kona hana nui, ‘oia ho‘i, ‘o Ka ‘Ohe Kani Ho‘okalakupua (nui ka manawa o kona ho‘okani mawaena o ka wā o kona ho‘omaka ame kō Mozart make)[38] ame "Little Masonic Cantata", K. 623, i ho‘omaka ai ma 15 Nowemapa, 1791.[39]

Ka make[E ho'opololei | edit source]

Nānā iā: Make o Mozart

Na Barbara Krafft keia ki‘i ma 1819

Hele ‘o Mozart ā ma‘i ma Prague. Aia ‘o Mozart ma‘ō no ka ho‘omaka ma 6 Kepakemapa o kona keaka mele ‘o La clemenza di Tito, i kākau ‘ia ai ma 1791 ma ka uku komikina no ka poni mō‘i no ka ‘Emepela.[40] Hiki ‘oia e ho‘omau i kona ‘oihana i wahi manawa; alaka‘i ‘oia i ka ho‘omaka o The Magic Flute ma 30 Kepakemapa. Ho‘olawehala ka ma‘i ma 20 Nowemapa, ame i kēlā manawa moe ma‘i ‘oia, ‘eha‘eha ‘oia i ka ‘ea kūka‘a ame ka lua‘i.

Mālama ‘ia ‘o Mozart ma kona ma‘i hope loa e Constanze, kona kaikaina muli loa ‘o Sophie, ame ke kauka o ka ‘ohana, ‘o Thomas Franz Closset. Aia ka ‘ōlelo hō‘ike, makemake nui loa kona mana‘o e ho‘opau i kona Requiem. Li‘ili‘i ka pahiki, ha‘i ‘oia i ka mele iā Süssmayr.[41][42]

Make ‘o Mozart ma ka hola ‘ekahi ma ke kahakiaka ma 5 Kekemapa. Penei ka hō‘ike ‘ano o New Grove e pili ana i kona ho‘olewa: "Kanu ‘ia ‘o Mozart i he hē ‘awelika, me ka mēheuheu hē Vienna i kēlā wā, ma ka ilina o St Marx mawaho o ke kūlanakauhale ma 7 Kekemapa. Inā (kākau nā hō‘ike hope) ‘a‘ole hele mai nā mea kanikau i kona hē, ‘oia me ka mēheuheu hē Vienna i kēlā wā; mahope, kākau ‘o Jahn (1856), aia ‘o Salieri, ‘o Süssmayr, ‘o van Swieten ame wiliwili kekahi mau mea ho‘okani ma ka hē. I kēlā lā, ‘a‘ole he ‘ino ame he hua; ‘olu‘olu ka lā."[33]

Ke ki‘i[E ho'opololei | edit source]

Nā kūmole[E ho'opololei | edit source]

  1. Solomon 1995, p. 44
  2. Halliwell 1998, p. 172, pp. 183-185
  3. Solomon 1995, p. 106
  4. Solomon 1995, p. 103
  5. Solomon 1995, p. 98
  6. Solomon 1995, p. 107
  7. Solomon 1995, p. 109
  8. Rushton (1992)
  9. Deutsch 1965, p. 174
  10. Solomon 1995, p. 149
  11. Halliwell 1998, pp. 304-305
  12. Rushton 1992, p. 3
  13. Halliwell 1998, p. 305
  14. For details see Halliwell 1998, chs. 18-19.
  15. Solomon 1995, p. 157
  16. See, e.g. Halliwell 1998, p. 322
  17. Rushton 1992, §3
  18. Deutsch 1965, p. 176
  19. 19.0 19.1 19.2 19.3 Rushton 1992, §4
  20. Solomon 1995, p. 247
  21. Solomon 1995, p. 253
  22. Solomon 1995, §16
  23. Solomon 1995, p. 270
  24. 24.0 24.1 Solomon 1995, p. 293
  25. 25.0 25.1 Solomon 1995, p. 298
  26. Solomon 1995, p. 430
  27. Solomon 1995, p. 578
  28. Solomon 1995, §27
  29. Solomon 1995, p. 431
  30. Solomon 1995, p. 321
  31. Solomon 1995
  32. 32.0 32.1 Solomon 1995, pp. 423–424
  33. 33.0 33.1 33.2 Rushton 1992, §6
  34. Solomon 1995
  35. Steptoe 1988, p. 208
  36. Solomon 1995, §30
  37. 37.0 37.1 37.2 Solomon 1995, p. 477
  38. Solomon 1995, p. 487
  39. Solomon 1995, p. 490
  40. Solomon 1995, p. 485
  41. Solomon 1995, p. 493
  42. Solomon 1995, p. 588